Employers who invest meagerly in their workforce and hire primarily low-wage, less-skilled workers (which often mean a large proportion of women and nonwhite employees) are unlikely to provide family benefits.

In contrast, employers who have made a greater investment in their employees by offering opportunities for advancement and training and who rely primarily on a highly skilled, high-paid workforce are more likely to be concerned with issues such as employee turnover. Consequently, such employers are more likely to provide desirable benefit packages as a way to reap the greatest returns on their investment by reducing turnover, absenteeism, and training cost (Greenhouse, 2012).

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