As far as Taylorism is concerned, Nyland (1996) elaborates that John. R. Commons was quite close to Taylor himself and a keen observer of his theories in practice. From 1916 onwards he had been a critical observer and gave his views in favour of the theory, however, indicating where it could be most appropriate with changing times. He further emphasized on the word, ‘exchange’ (Rutherford & Samuels 1996: 459) according to which various meaning were devised. Here it meant the exhange of the labourer’s work to a foreman, in simple words, the exchange of money for his hard work which always cannot be calculated on the basis of piece rate and compensation given according to it.
What has progressed over time appropriately matches to the management theories presented as and when the stance of production, competition and globalization witnessed changes in management styles. Therefore, no matter how appropriate a theory was to manufacturing in developed countries in the past would most readily be deemed obsolete today. Also do we notice a profound shift in the focus of service sector from what was manufacturing in the past.
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