With Java code having been compiled and interpreted by Virtual Machine, much of the Hardware’s headache has been handled by the Java virtual Machine for the programmer.
Incase of the operating system capabilities JVM runs over Operating System layer and translates the Java instruction into operating system calls. The purpose of Virtual Machine is to provide abstraction. JVM itself can be said to have an abstraction of a Virtual Machine. It has a class loader and an interpreter that produces application-neutral byte code. JVM could be implemented as software on host operating system such as Windows, Linux, and MacOS etc or as a part of web browser. Before OS calls Java interpreter interprets byte code one line at a time and a faster approach in software is the use of Just-in-time compilation where any specific Java method is called and the byte code referring to any particular method is translated into native machine code. To implement en even faster method is to use and run JVM in hardware on special Java chip where java byte code is considered the native code and no interpretation by software of just in time compilation is required. With OS java has a capability of running threads. When java main method is called a thread is run even the simplest java application causes JVM to run a thread.
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