Distributed systems gained popularity with the advent of networked application in 1970’s where Ethernet introduced local area computing and Arpanet introduced wide area networks. The issue of distributed applications was a hot topic in 80’s and become even popular implementation issue in 1990’s. Unlike other system in distributed system processes communicate by message passing instead of reading and writing shared variables.
The motivations for building distributed applications include resource sharing, computation speedup, reliability and communication. In distributed system incase of different sites being connected user of one site could share resources of another site, computational tasks could be divided among all the processors using the distributed application this improves performance to a large scale. This management of job among different processors is called job sharing or load sharing. Though is possible but not commercially used, is the automated load sharing where distributed operating system automatically replaces jobs. Incase of failure of any of the site the distributed applications can switch the sites they are at. If the application is not running at huge autonomous system then a failure of a component could be considered as crucial to the system, this single failure could halt the entire system. But for autonomous system this failure never affects rest of the system. Its also a design issue that failure of the system should be detected and must be replaced at earliest because it could devoid a system from being able to use all the available sites. In these applications messages are passed just as processes pass messages in single-computer message system. With this feature of message passing very high level functionalities of standalone systems could be introduced in distributed systems
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