Losses are also seen in the number of work days lost due to illness. According to the (CDC, 2009) employees who smoke a pack or more a day cost institutions 18% higher in medical claims that those that do not smoke. This is also supported by a report by Ceridian Corporation (Rudnick, n.d.) who noted that those who are heavy smokers spend 25% days more than the average non smoker as inpatients in hospital.

Health effects are supported by the World health organization that reports that 90% of death by lung cancer is from smoking. In addition smoking causes 30% of all cases of cancer, 80% for bronchitis and between 20-25% for heart diseases. Smoking has also been associated with respiratory diseases, stomach ulcers and even complications in pregnancy CDC (2009).

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