The Northern Alliance was formally recognized as the Afghan government by the United Nations (U.N.) following the December 2001 meeting of Afghan mujahedeen leaders and other influential Afghans in Bonn, Germany. This meeting, what the Afghans refer to as a loya jirga — a council of leaders working toward political objectives (Wardak, 2003) — outlined the formation of a Democratic government through what is known as the Bonn Agreement and the Pashto Hamid Karzai was selected to serve as the head of the Afghan Interim Authority.
In essence, the U.N. and its member nations recognized that in the wake of the nation’s Civil War and the Taliban’s rule, Afghanistan had been without an officially-recognized government for over two decades and would require time to rebuild and establish itself as a viable government positioned to engage in foreign relations (Ayub & Kuovo, 2008). The Interim Authority was intended to help facilitate this transition by creating and ratifying a constitution for the country. A nationwide loya jirga occurred in 2002 at which Karzai was chosen to serve as the Interim President of Afghanistan. Additionally, loya jirgas occurring in 2003, and 2004 established the nation’s constitution. After the ratified of the ratification, the national election was held in October of 2004 which elected Karzai to Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The legislative elections in 2005 marked the reentry of women into politics as they were granted the right to vote and run as candidates.
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