While the Afghanistan was reported to be one of the world’s largest refugee populations, many of Afghan children have received a substantial amount of their education in other countries. Hoodfar (2007) reported that the large Afghan refugee community lives in Iran or in Pakistan.
Many of these refugees were from poor, rural communities where education had largely been considered a luxury (Adelkah & Olzewska, 2007; Norton & Kamal, 2003). Iran initiated a campaign to eradicate illiteracy among the Afghan refugees, in a belief that education is “a crucial aspect of being a ‘good Muslim’” (p. 267). While Hoodfar (2007) observed that this linking of literacy to Muslimness held an initial appeal to many refugees. Over time, the Afghan refugee community in Iran began to perceive the Iranian education efforts as akin to propaganda and which had contributed to refugee movement. The clashes between the Afghan refugee population and the Iranian government eventually led the Iranian schools to deny educational access to children of undocumented refugees.
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